Category History of jungle

History of jungle

More than fifteen years earlier, when Wifredo Lam painted The JungleCuba had already spent over four decades at the mercy of United States-interests. Wifredo Lam remains the most renowned painter from Cuba and The Jungle remains his best known work and an important painting in the history of Latin American art and the history twentieth-century modernism more broadly. In the s and 30s, Lam was in Madrid and Paris, but in as Europe was engulfed by war, he returned to his native country.

The Junglecurrently on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, has an undeniable presence within the gallery: the cluster of enigmatic faces, limbs, and sugarcane crowd a canvas that is nearly an 8 foot square. The artist haphazardly constructs the figures from a collection of distinct forms—crescent-shaped faces; prominent, rounded backsides; willowy arms and legs; and flat, cloddish hands and feet.

When assembled these figures resemble a funhouse mirror reflection. Sugarcane does not grow in jungles but rather is cultivated in fields. In s Cuba, sugarcane was big business, requiring the toil of thousands of laborers similar to the cotton industry in the American South before the Civil War.

history of jungle

The reality of laboring Cubans was in sharp contrast to how foreigners perceived the island nation, namely as a playground. While northern visitors enjoyed a permissive resort experience, U.

During the interwar period in Paris, Lam befriended the Surrealists, whose influence is evident in The Jungle. Surrealists aimed to release the unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the rational—in order to achieve another reality.

Jungle warfare

These ceremonies are moments of metamorphosis where a being is at once itself and otherworldly. The Jungle is both enigmatic and enchanting, and has inspired generations of viewers to liberate their imaginations.

Fouchet, Max-Pol. Wifredo Lam. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Republished in Richards, Paulette. Sign up for our newsletter! Receive occasional emails about new Smarthistory content. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle detail. Conrado W. Massaguer, Visit Cubapostcard, n.

Cite this page as: Dr.Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. It has been the topic of extensive study by military strategists, and was an important part of the planning for both sides in many conflicts, including World War II and the Vietnam War.

The jungle has a variety of effects on military operations. Dense vegetation can limit lines of sight and arcs of fire, but can also provide ample opportunity for camouflage and plenty of material with which to build fortifications.

Jungle terrain, often without good roads, can be inaccessible to vehicles and so makes logistical supply and transport difficult, which in turn places a premium on air mobility. The problems of transport make engineering resources important as they are needed to improve roads, build bridges and airfields, and improve water supplies.

Jungle environments can also be inherently unhealthy, with various tropical diseases that have to be prevented or treated by medical services. Likewise the terrain can make it difficult to deploy armoured forces, or any other kind of forces on any large scale.

Successful jungle fighting emphasises effective small unit tactics and leadership. Throughout world history, forests have played significant roles in many of the most historic battles. For example, the Northern Song Dynasty constructed and maintained an extensive defensive forest in present-day Hebei.

In the Malayan Campaigntime and again they infiltrated through the jungle to bypass static British positions based on road blocks so that they could cut the British supply line and attack their defences from all sides. In earlythe fighting in Burma at the start of the Burma Campaign took on a similar aspect and resulted in one of the longest retreats in British military history. The Chindits were a special force of 3, which in February launched a deep penetration raid, code-named Operation Longcloth into Japanese occupied Burma.

They went in on foot using mules to carry supplies. The operation was not a military success, but was a propaganda boost for the Allies, because it showed that Allied forces could successfully move and fight in jungle terrain well away from roads. On the back of the propaganda success, Orde Wingatethe eccentric commander of the Chindits, was given the resources to increase his command to divisional size and the USAAF supplied the 1st Air Commando Group to support his operations.

The availability of air transport revolutionized Wingate's operational choices. In February Operation Thursday was launched, and air transport support supplied 1st Air to allow the Chindits to set up air supplied bases deep behind enemy lines from which aggressive combat patrols could be sent out to interdict Japanese supply lines and disrupt rear echelon forces.

This in turn forced the Japanese 18th Division to pull front-line troops from the battle against X Force which was advancing through Northern Burma to protect the men building the Ledo Road.

When the Japanese closed on a base and got within artillery range the base could be abandoned and then set up in another remote location. The ability to sustain the bases that relied totally on air power in the coming decades would prove a template for many similar operations. After the first Chindits expedition, thanks to the training the regular forces were receiving and the example of the Chindits and new divisional tactics, the regular units of the Fourteenth Army started to get the measure of both the jungle and the enemy.

When the Japanese launched their late Arakan offensive they infiltrated Allied lines to attack the 7th Indian Infantry Division from the rear, overrunning the divisional HQ. Unlike previous occasions on which this had happened, the Allied forces stood firm against the attack and supplies were dropped to them by parachute. In the Battle of the Admin Box from 5 February to 23 February, the Japanese were unable to break through the heavily defended perimeter of the box.

The Japanese switched their attack to the central front but again the British fell back into defensive box of Imphaland the Kohima redoubt. In falling back to the defensive positions around Imphal the leading British formations found their retreat cut by Japanese forces, but unlike previously, they took that attitude that if the Japanese were behind them then they were just as cut off as the British.

The situation maps of the fighting along the roads leading to Imphal resembled a slice of marble cake as both sides used the jungle to outflank each other. Another major change by the British was that use of air support both as an offensive weapon to replace artillery, and as a logistical tool to transport men and equipment. For example, the 5th Indian Infantry Division was airlifted straight from the now quieter Arakan front up to the central front and were in action within days of arriving.A jungle is land covered with dense forest and tangled vegetation, usually in hot climates.

Application of the term has varied greatly during the past recent centuries. Before the s, tropical rainforests were generally referred to as jungles, but this terminology has fallen out of usage. It came into the English language via Hindi in the 18th century. Because jungles occur on all inhabited landmasses and may incorporate numerous vegetation and land types in different climatic zonesthe wildlife of jungles can not be straightforwardly defined.

One of the most common meanings of jungle is land overgrown with tangled vegetation at ground level, especially in the tropics. Typically such vegetation is sufficiently dense to hinder movement by humans, requiring that travellers cut their way through. Jungle also typically forms along rainforest margins such as stream banks, once again due to the greater available light at ground level. Monsoon forests and mangroves are commonly referred to as jungles of this type.

Having a more open canopy than rainforests, monsoon forests typically have dense understoreys with numerous lianas and shrubs making movement difficult, [6] [13] [14] while the prop roots and low canopies of mangroves produce similar difficulties. Because European explorers initially travelled through tropical rainforests largely by river, the dense tangled vegetation lining the stream banks gave a misleading impression that such jungle conditions existed throughout the entire forest.

As a result, it was wrongly assumed that the entire forest was impenetrable jungle. The word "rainforest" has largely replaced "jungle" as the descriptor of humid tropical forests, a linguistic transition that has occurred since the s. As a metaphor, jungle often refers to situations that are unruly or lawless, or where the only law is perceived to be "survival of the fittest". This reflects the view of "city people" that forests are such places. Upton Sinclair gave the title The Jungle to his famous book about the life of workers at the Chicago Stockyards, portraying the workers as being mercilessly exploited with no legal or other lawful recourse.

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The term " The Law of the Jungle " is also used in a similar context, drawn from Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book —though in the society of jungle animals portrayed in that book and obviously meant as a metaphor for human society, that phrase referred to an intricate code of laws which Kipling describes in detail, and not at all to a lawless chaos.

The word "jungle" itself carries connotations of untamed and uncontrollable nature and isolation from civilisation, along with the emotions that evokes: threat, confusion, powerlessness, disorientation and immobilisation. Cultural scholarsespecially post-colonial critics, often analyse the jungle within the concept of hierarchical domination and the demand western cultures often places on other cultures to conform to their standards of civilisation.

For example: Edward Said notes that the Tarzan depicted by Johnny Weissmuller was a resident of the jungle representing the savage, untamed and wild, yet still a white master of it; [29] and in his essay " An Image of Africa " about Heart of Darkness Nigerian novelist and theorist Chinua Achebe notes how the jungle and Africa become the source of temptation for white European characters like Marlowe and Kurtz.

Former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak compared Israel to "a villa in the jungle" - a comparison which had been often quoted in Israeli political debates. Barak's critics on the left side of Israeli politics strongly criticised the comparison.

For example, Uri Avnery charged that comparing "civilised" Israel with "a villa" and Israel's Arab neighbors with the "wild beasts" of the "jungle" tends to throw the blame for the absence of peace on the "wild" Arab and Palestinian side, and absolve Israel of responsibility. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An impassable dense forest typically tropical.Unlike most other muckrakers, such as Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens, Sinclair mainly wrote fiction. Yet he reported his books much like a journalist.

Sinclair embraced socialism wholeheartedly within months of being introduced to it, and, except for a brief interlude during World War I, he would remain a committed member of the Socialist Party of America for decades thereafter. Appeal to Reason never printed the ending, however, due to tepid reader response. The book differs in many respects from the newspaper serial. At first, his solution to everything is to work harder. Yet the system eventually beats him down.

Among other calamities, he is laid off after being injured on the job, his wife is raped and then dies in childbirth, he is jailed, his house is repossessed and his young son drowns in the street. Only after becoming a socialist does Rudkus turn his life around. Most readers, however, instead fixated on his descriptions of rotten meat, filled with toxic chemicals, dirt, sawdust and rat droppings, that went out for sale.

As a teenager, Sinclair wrote jokes, short stories and puzzles for pulp magazines, as well as dime novels. Yet despite making decent money, he gave up this line of work to become a more serious author. At first, it appeared to be a terrible career move. From toSinclair published four books that were all commercial failures. The two men, it turned out, did not get along particularly well. But because Roosevelt distrusted its close ties to the meatpacking industry, he secretly instructed Labor Commissioner Charles P.

Neill and social worker James B. Reynolds to likewise take a look. In addition to prohibiting mislabeled and adulterated food products, these two laws paved the way for all future consumer protection legislation.

At its peak, the colony had several dozen members, who, by sharing the cooking, housekeeping, and childcare duties, hoped to maximize their time for intellectual pursuits. After that, Sinclair drifted from place to place for almost a decade until finally settling in California, where he would spend the majority of the rest of his life.

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Augustine, Florida.The Junglenovel by Upton Sinclairpublished serially in and as a single-volume book in Because of the public response, the U. Pure Food and Drug Act was passed inand conditions in American slaughterhouses were improved. They all live in a small town named Packingtown in Chicago. Jurgis and his family, hoping for opportunity, are instead thrown into a chaotic world that requires them to constantly struggle in order to survive.

Packingtown is an urban jungle: savage, unforgiving, and unrelenting. After being scammed into renting a barely livable house, they get to work. As winter comes, the conditions at each of their places of work become even more dangerous.

History of Jungle - Emma Louise

Dede dies. Jurgis responds to these terrible working conditions by joining a labour union.

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His membership reveals to him the corruption deeply embedded in the factory systemwhich prompts him to take English classes in the hopes of promotion. Ona gives birth to a boy who is named Antanas, and she is forced to return to work just a week later. After suffering a sprained ankle from a work-related accident, Jurgis is bedridden for three months without pay; this lack of income puts a massive strain on his family. Jurgis, finally recovered, tries to find work, but, after three months of being sedentary, he has lost some of his strength, causing all the factories to deny him work.

Eventually he gets a job at a fertilizer plant—the worst possible job, because the chemicals used there kill most workers after a few years.

history of jungle

Jurgis takes to alcohol. Ona is pregnant for a second time and, after returning home late one night from work, is revealed to have been raped by her boss, Phil Connor. Jurgis finds and attacks Connor and then is jailed for a month. Jurgis meets Jack Duane, who is a criminal; the two become friends. When Jurgis is released from prison, he finds that his family has been evicted from their house.

When he finds them, he discovers Ona prematurely in labour. Both she and the child die. Jurgis, defeated, goes on a drinking binge. A wealthy woman takes interest in the family and provides Jurgis with a job at a steel mill. Jurgis feels renewed hope; he has dedicated himself entirely to Antanas. Jurgis abandons the rest of the family and wanders the countryside for a while, returning to Chicago the next winter to live on his own.

He finds a job digging freight tunnels, where he soon injures himself. When he recovers, he is unable to find a job and is forced to beg on the streets. He gets hold of a hundred-dollar bill after spending a night with a wealthy man named Freddie Jones. However, when he attempts to change out the hundred for smaller bills at a bar, the bartender swindles him.

Jurgis attacks the bartender and lands back in jail, where he is reunited with Jack Duane. Upon release, the men commit a number of burglaries and muggings as partners. Mike Scully, a corrupt politician, eventually hires Jurgis to cross picket lines as a scab. He makes a substantial amount of money doing this.Jungle is a music genre that developed out of the UK rave scene and reggae sound system culture in the s.

Emerging from breakbeat hardcorethe style is characterized by rapid breakbeatsheavily syncopated percussive loops, samplesand synthesized effects, combined with the deep basslinesmelodies, and vocal samples found in dubreggae and dancehallas well as hip hop and funk. Jungle was a predecessor to drum and basswhich saw success in the late s. Reggae samples and reggae influenced tracks had been a feature of many breakbeat hardcore tracks since particularly from producers such as Shut Up and Dance[2] however Ibiza Records, [3] and the Rebel MC were arguably the first to bring the sound system influence solidly into releases.

The track We Are I. During andthe phrases jungle techno and hardcore jungle proliferated to describe that shift of the music from breakbeat hardcore to jungle. The sound was championed at clubs such as A. Techniques and styles could be traced to such a vast group of influencers, each adding their own little elements.

That said, you could equally make the case that jungle is a raved-up, digitized offshoot of Jamaican reggae. The origin of the word jungle is one of discussion. Rebel MC is often noted for having popularised the term, and in the book Energy FlashMC Navigator is quoted as attributing the word to him. Jungle was a form of cultural expression for London's lower class urban youth.

history of jungle

The post- Thatcherite United Kingdom of the early s had left many young people disenfranchised and disillusioned with a seemingly crumbling societal structure. Jungle reflected these feelings; it was a notably more dark, less euphoric style of music than many of the other styles popular at raves.

Characterized by the breakbeats and multi-tiered rhythms, Jungle drew support from British b-boys who got swept up into the rave scene, but also from reggaedancehallelectro and rap fans alike. A controversy raged over the success of Incredible when Levy reportedly made comments in the media that he was "running jungle at the moment". Although Levy always argued that his comments were misinterpreted, this did not fail to stop a boycott of the single amongst a group of DJs that were dubbed as the "Jungle Committee".

Having previously been confined to pirate radio, legal stations woke up to jungle from Jungle music, as a scene, was unable to decide whether it wanted to be recognized in the mainstream or if it wanted to avoid misrepresentation. Small record labels work to provide more autonomy to the music artists in return for their business and jungle music was proliferated by pirate stations in underground networks and clubs. Whilst the media would in part feed of jungle music success, it also perpetuated negative stereotypes about the scene as being violent.

Hip-hop and jazz influenced tracks dominated the clubs in this period. By the end ofthe genre's sound had changed forms significantly from that heard earlier in the decade. The term "jungle" is often used as a synonym for drum and bass, particularly in the United States.The style is characterized by fast tempos to bpmbreakbeats, dub reggae basslines, heavily syncopated percussive loops, samples, and synthesized effects.

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Long pitch-shifted snare rolls are common in old-school jungle. Jungle was a predecessor to drum and bass, a well-known genre of electronic music.

Producers create the drum patterns by cutting apart breakbeats, the most common of which is the Amen break. The slow, deep basslines and simple melodies are reminiscent of those found in dub, reggae, and dancehall.

The post-Thatcherite United Kingdom of the early s had left many young urbanites disenfranchised and disillusioned with a seemingly crumbling societal structure.

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Jungle reflected these feelings; it was a notably more dark, less euphoric style of music than many of the other styles popular at raves. The music was much more popular with black British youths than other rave styles, such as technoeven though it was heavily influenced by these other rave styles, including those that emerged from the United States.

Jungle music, as a scene, was unable to decide whether it wanted to be recognized in the mainstream or if it wanted to avoid misrepresentation. This manifested in the cooperation of Jungle artists and small record labels. Small record labels work to provide more autonomy to the music artists in return for their business and jungle music was proliferated by pirate stations in underground networks and clubs.

Jungle music

In the summer ofa Thursday night club in London called Rage was changing the format in response to the commercialization of the rave scene. Resident DJs Fabio and Grooverideramongst others, began to take the hardcore sound to a new level. The speed of the music increased from bpm to bpm, while more ragga and dancehall elements were brought in and techno, disco and house influences were decreased.

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The safety of the trance-like state produced by disco and house was replaced with the edginess and danger of disruptive beats. This was reflected in track titles of the era, typically from late and early Rage shut its doors inbut the new legion of jungle had evolved, changing dancing styles for the faster music, enjoying the off-beat rhythms and with less reliance on the chemical stimulation of the rave era. Jungle shares a number of similarities with hip-hop. Both genres of music are produced using the same types of equipment: samplers, drum machines, microphones, and sequencers.

The maturation of Jungle coincided with an increasing ease of computer-based music productionallowing beats to be chopped, processed, and resequenced into higher and higher levels of complexity.

Producers began meticulously building breakbeats from scratch with extreme precision, sequencing together individual single shot samples. The melodic, textural bass differentiated Jungle from the metronomic, pulsating sound of mainstream dance music.

7 Things You May Not Know About “The Jungle”

Jungle music burst onto the scene in the early s as a genre of music arising from techno with strong influences from hip-hop. It became a convergence of the African-American and African-Caribbean diaspora. He also discussed the nuances of Jungle and the importance of technology in its creation. Coming into popularity in the early s it was ridiculously upbeat, intense, and even discombobulating. Characterized by the breakbeats and multi-tiered rhythmsJungle drew support from British b-boys who got swept up into the rave scene, but also from reggaedancehall, electro, and rap fans alike.

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